What is RAM? Know the Types and Functions Come on!

The term RAM i tself is familiar to our ears, but what exactly is RAM? RAM or (Random Access Memory) is hardware contained in gadgets such as computers, laptops, and smartphones. This RAM serves as a temporary data storage area and only works when the device is on or operating. This means that, when an electronic device is run by an application, the program will use RAM to place temporary data. The RAM capacity in a device greatly affects the level of data processing speed on the device. So that the activities carried out on the device such as the process of storing data, opening data, and running programs will be faster according to the amount of RAM the computer has.

RAM function

The main function of RAM is to speed up data processing on the device. No wonder if the larger the RAM capacity is installed, the faster the device will work. Not only that, the following functions of RAM.

  • Can store data originating from the incoming device until the data is sent to the ALU or (Arithmetic Logic Unit) for processing.
  • Can be used to store ALU processing data before being sent to the output device.
  • Can accommodate programs or instructions originating from input devices or from secondary reminder devices.
  • Can speed up the data processing process.

Types of RAM

 1. Dynamic RAM (DRAM)

Dynamic RAM is a type of RAM that is refreshed or refreshed by the Central Processing Unit (CPU) periodically so that the data in it is not lost. The advantage of D RAM is its structural simplicity because it only requires one transistor and capacitor per bit, compared to four transistors in S RAM.


Sychronous Dynamic Random Access Memory or SDRAM is an advanced RAM from DRAM. However, these types of RAM have been synchronized by the system clock. Generally, SDRAM is faster than DRAM. This RAM speed can reach 100 to 133 MHz. The characteristics of SD RAM itself are that there are two gaps in the legs and they are placed in the DIMM/SD RAM slot in the motherhood, and can accommodate up to 1 GB of memory.


Double Rate Random Access Memory or DDR RAM are types of RAM with advanced technology from SD RAM. This RAM is capable of executing two instructions at the same time at the same time. This type of RAM has a capacity of 184 pins and consumes less electrical power. DDR RAM also has the latest generation, namely DDR2 and DDR3 and DDR4 is a development of DDR RAM. This type of RAM is widely used on laptops in order to save electricity and maximize it at high speed. For this type of memory capacity is quite large up to 16 GB per chip.


Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory or RDR RAM works faster and is generally more expensive than SD RAM. This type of SD RAM is used in computer devices that use Pentium 4 with a memory slot of up to 184 pins. This type of RAM uses the same RIMM slots as SD RAM. It is a dynamic chip technology made by Rambus, Inc. It has a special license for semiconductor technology that produces chips.

5. S RAM

Static Random Access Memory or S RAM is a type of RAM that can store data in it without having to refresh or refresh the CPU. This type of RAM has a faster working process than D RAM and SD RAM. It has a six-transistor cluster design that is useful for storing every bit of information. It is this design that makes S RAM more expensive and faster. Yes, physically the chip, the cost of manufacturing the chip is about 30 times greater than D RAM. But unfortunately, S RAM has a drawback, namely the cost of production. This makes the inventory only in a small capacity and used for parts that are really important.


Extended Data Out Random Access Memory or EDO RAM are types of RAM used in devices with Pentium OS and are suitable for installation on computers with buses up to 66 MHz. This type of memory can store and retrieve data at the same time. This type of memory is widely used to replace the existing primary memory on previous computers, namely FPM RAM. Because it can store and read simultaneously, the read and write speed of EDO RAM can be faster too.


Non Volatile Random Access Memory or NV RAM is a type of computer memory with random access which is usually used to store configurations made by firmware such as EFI, BIOS, or other firmware on embedded devices such as routers. In general, NV RAM is designed with CMOS manufacturing so that the power required is also small. To turn it on so that the stored data is not lost, the NV RAM uses a Lithium battery with a CR-2032. The data stored in this memory will not be lost even if the power is turned off.

The characteristics of the damaged RAM

Some of the characteristics of damaged RAM include:

  • Performance on computer programs is decreasing.
  • Computer / laptop often restarts itself.
  • Suddenly the computer screen Blue Screen.
  • Beeps when you want to change the boot.
  • Sounds when replacing slots.
  • On the fan it reads “krek krek krek”.
  • If you turn on the HDD LED, it stays on but won’t boot, then there is no sound other than the fan.

Severely damaged RAM (perhaps) will be detected by the CPU with a BEEP ERROR CODE sound, but approximately 30% of the RAM is damaged, it will pass the hardware test when booting but will have an error when it is used for installation or often gets a blue screen. Usually when we want to install software it often fails.

RAM Structure

The 4 structures of RAM include:

  • Input storage, used to accommodate the input entered through the input device.
  • Program storage, used to store all program instructions to be accessed.
  • Working storage, used to store data to be processed and the results of processing.
  • Output storage, used to accommodate the final result of data processing that will be displayed to the output device.

RAM Components

Type describes the type (variation) of RAM based on the technology it uses, such as SDRAM, DDR or DDR2. This is sometimes also referred to as an “interface”. Example: Visipro DDR 256Mb PC266 means using DDR technology.

  1. Capacity describes how much RAM data storage capacity is in Gigabytes (GB) or Megabytes (MB). Capacity is the most important factor in a RAM because of its function as data storage. Example: Visipro DDR2 512Mb PC4300 means it has a capacity of 512 Megabytes.
  2. FSB (short for Front Side Bus), which is the size of the data path between the Processor and RAM in Megahertz units. The FSB Processor and RAM units should have the same number so that data can be transferred optimally [See the Dual Channel RAM table]. Example: Visipro DDR2 256MB PC3200 means it has a 400MHz FSB (PC3200 divided by 8 bytes).
  3. Function, describes the function of RAM, such as Unbuffered (used on Desktop), ECC, or Registered (both used on Server). [See in the What are Unbuffered, ECC and Registered segments?] Unbuffered is the usual type of RAM used by computers in general, ECC (Error Correction Code) is commonly used on Workstation / Low End Server computers & Registered ECC is commonly used on Medium to High End Servers. Example: Visipro DDR2 1GB PC4300 ECC Registered means it has the ECC Registered function on its module.
  4. Bandwidth is the amount of data that can be transferred or processed within one second (MB/s or Megabytes per second). Generally currently DDR/DDR2 RAM lists the bandwidth on the RAM Module. Bandwidth can be obtained by multiplying FSB x Architecture. RAM architecture is 64-bit (8byte), so if DDR PC266 has an FSB of 266 MHz it is equal to 266 MHz x 8 bytes = 2100 MB/s. This means that DDR PC266 (FSB) is the same as DDR PC2100 (Bandwidth). Example: Visipro DDR2 512MB PC4300 means it has a bandwidth of 4300MB/s.

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